Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah
|Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah|
الشيخ جابر الأحمد الجابر الصباح
|Emir of Kuwait|
|Reign||31 December 1977 – 15 January 2006|
|Successor||Saad Al-Salim Al-Sabah|
|Prime Minister of Kuwait|
|Reign||30 November 1965 – 8 February 1978|
|Predecessor||Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah|
|Successor||Saad Al-Salim Al-Sabah|
|Born||29 June 1926|
Kuwait City, Kuwait
|Died||15 January 2006 (aged 79)|
London, United Kingdom
|Father||Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah|
|Mother||Sheikha Bibi Al-Salim Al-Sabah|
Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Sabah, GCB (Hon), GCMG (Hon) (29 June 1926 – 15 January 2006) (Arabic: الشيخ جابر الأحمد الجابر الصباح) of the al-Sabah dynasty, was the Emir of Kuwait and Commander of the Military of Kuwait; serving from 31 December 1977 until his death on 15 January 2006 due to cerebral hemorrhage. The third monarch to rule Kuwait since its independence from Britain, Jaber had previously served as Minister of Finance and Economy from 1962 until 1965, when he was appointed Prime minister prior to becoming Kuwait's ruler.
Early life and education
In 1962, he was appointed as Kuwait's minister of finance when the ministry was established. In this position, Sheikh Jaber was tasked with putting the new Kuwaiti dinar into circulation and establishing the Kuwaiti Currency Board, of which he was the chair. As minister, Jaber adopted, and was the first chairman of, the Kuwaiti Fund for Arab Economic Development from 1962–1964. The Fund provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries; currently it is helping 103 countries. The country's oil revenues transformed it from a largely urban seafaring society to a modern state. During this time, the Fund expanded to aid five countries and gave loans to another eight. The money going into the fund came from oil earnings, with virtually all of it being sent outside Kuwait.
Kuwait found itself geographically in the middle of the Iran–Iraq War that took place from 1980 to 1988.
Throughout the war, the country suffered from many security threats, including a series of bombings. In 1986, one year after the attack on Sheikh Jaber's motorcade, there was an attack on an oil installation, which almost caused the shutdown of Kuwait's oil industry.
Some sources claim that the task of the invading Iraqi forces was to capture or kill Sheikh Jaber. However, such a claimed plan was not possible with the exile of Sheikh Jaber and his government to Saudi Arabia within hours of the invasion where they ran the Kuwaiti exiled government from a hotel in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia.
From Ta'if, Sheikh Jaber set up his government so that its ministers were in constant communication with the people still in Kuwait. The government was able to direct an underground armed resistance made up of both military and civilian forces and was able to provide public services to the Kuwaiti people who remained, such as emergency care through the funds that it had saved from oil revenues.
In the meantime, Jaber and his government lobbied extensively to receive military support action against Iraq before and during the Gulf War. When the war ended on 28 February 1991, Sheikh Jaber remained in Saudi Arabia while declaring three months of martial law, causing the accusation that he was trying to monopolize too much power for the small constitutional monarchy.
By declaring martial law, those who were appointed to government positions were able to ensure the safety of the people. By imposing martial law, government officials were able to ensure that there were no Iraqis still in Kuwait who may have attempted to once again overthrow the government. They were also tasked with making sure that the country was safe enough for Sheikh Jaber and his government to return, which they eventually did on 15 March 1991.
Personal life and death
His actual family is quite complex; so it is unclear how many wives he had. He had more than forty children. In September 2001, Sheikh Jaber suffered from a stroke and went to the United Kingdom for treatment. Five years later, he died on 15 January 2006, aged 79, from a cerebral hemorrhage that he had suffered since 2001. He was succeeded by the Crown Prince Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah. The government announced a 40-day period of mourning and closed for three days.
Titles, styles and honours
- 1926–1937: Sheikh Jaber Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
- 1937–1962: His Excellency Sheikh Jaber Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
- 1962–1963: His Highness Sheikh Jaber Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Prime Minister of the State of Kuwait
- 1966–1977: His Highness Sheikh Jaber Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Crown Prince of the State of Kuwait
- 1977–1979: His Highness Sheikh Jaber III Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Amir of Kuwait
- 1979–1995: His Highness Sheikh Jaber III Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Amir of Kuwait, GCMG
- 1995–2006: His Highness Sheikh Jaber III Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Amir of Kuwait, GCB, GCMG
Honours and awards
Sheikh Jaber was given the following honors and awards.
Kuwait national honours
Arab and non-Arab honours
- United Kingdom:
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) – 1979
- Saudi Arabia:
- Collar of the Order of the Nile
- Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
- Grand Cross of the Legion d'Honneur – 1989
- Grand Cordon of the National Order of the Cedar
- Order of Merit of Pakistan, 1st Class
- South Korea:
- Grand Cordon of the Grand Order of Mugunghwa
- Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum – 1995
- Star of the Republic, 1st Class
- United Kingdom:
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) – 1995
- Sash of the Order of the Star of Romania – 1999
- Collar of the Order of Muhammad – 2002
- Hassan, Hamdi A. (1999), The Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait: Religion, Identity and Otherness in the Analysis of War and Conflict (Series: Critical Studies on Islam); New York: Pluto (UK).
- Laura Etheredge (Ed.). "Persian Gulf States: Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates". New York, NY: Britannic Educational Publishing, 2011. Print. p. 53
- "His Highness Sheikh Jaber III". The Telegraph. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Obituary: Sheikh Jaber, Emir of Kuwait". BBC. 15 January 2006. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "When our flag lost its sky … and only hearts remembered". 4 November 2013. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Zahlan, Rosemarie Said. "Making of the Modern A Arabian Gulf states Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman". London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. Print. p. 81
- "Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development – Timeline. Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development – Timeline", 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
- "Emir of Kuwait's motorcade bombed on highway". Kentucky New Era. AP. 24 May 1984. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Zahlan, Rosemarie Said. Making of the Modern Persian Gulf States: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. Print. p. 44
- Ibrahim, Youssef M. "Confrontation in the Gulf: Man in the News; The Exiled Emir: Sheikh Jaber AL-Ahmad AL-Saber AL-Sarah", The New York Times, 26 September 1996. Retrieved 16 November 2009
-  Sheikh Saad Al- Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah, the 14th Ruler and 4th Emir
-  Archived 24 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine Sheikh Saad Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah, the 14th Ruler and 4th Emir
- Brahmani, Yourself M. "After the War: Kuwait City; Nagging Question Lies Beneath Kuwait's Rejoicing: When Is the Emir Coming Home?", The New York Times, 4 March 1997.
- Brahmani, Yourself M. "After the War: Kuwait; Kuwaiti Emir, Tired and Tearful, Returns to His Devastated Land", The New York Times, 15 March 1997
- Ibrahim, Youssef M. "After the War: Kuwait; Kuwaiti Emir, Tired and Tearful, Returns to His Devastated Land", The New York Times, 15 March 1997
- "Emir of Kuwait dies". Daily Record. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Slackman, Michael, and Neil MacFarquhar. Just a few days earlier, Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, a rule from nearby Dubai died. "Sheik Jaber al-Ahmad al-Sabah, the Leader of Kuwait for 28 Years, Is Dead at 79", 'The New York Times, 16 January 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
- "Al-Sabah Dynasty". Royal Ark. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1980" (PDF).
Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-SabahBorn: 29 June 1926 Died: 15 January 2006
Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah
| Amir of Kuwait
Saad I Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah