Television in South Africa
|Part of a series on the|
Opposition to introduction
The first proposal to introduce television in South Africa was made by the J Arthur Rank organisation in 1953, but this was rejected by the National Party government. Even though the state-controlled South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) had a virtual monopoly on radio broadcasting, it also saw the new medium as a threat to Afrikaans and the Afrikaner volk, giving undue prominence to English, and creating unfair competition for the Afrikaans press.
Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd compared television with atomic bombs and poison gas, claiming that "they are modern things, but that does not mean they are desirable. The government has to watch for any dangers to the people, both spiritual and physical." 
Dr. Albert Hertzog, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs at the time, argued that "the effect of wrong pictures on children, the less developed and other races can be destructive". Declaring that TV would come to South Africa "over [his] dead body," Hertzog denounced it as "only a miniature bioscope which is being carried into the house and over which parents have no control." He also argued that "South Africa would have to import films showing race mixing; and advertising would make Africans dissatisfied with their lot."
However, many white South Africans, including some Afrikaners, did not share Hertzog's hostility towards what he called "the little black box". When Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the Moon in 1969, South Africa was one of the few countries unable to watch the event live, prompting one newspaper to remark, "The moon film has proved to be the last straw… The situation is becoming a source of embarrassment for the country." In response to public demand, the government arranged limited viewings of the landing, in which people were able to watch recorded footage for 15 minutes.
The opposition United Party pointed out that even less economically advanced countries in Africa had already introduced television. In addition, neighbouring Southern Rhodesia had introduced its own television service in 1960, the first country in Africa south of the equator to do so. Known as Rhodesia Television (RTV), its major shareholders were South African companies, including the Argus Group of newspapers through its subsidiary, the Rhodesian Printing and Publishing Company, and Davenport and Meyer, the latter of which operated LM Radio, based in Mozambique, then under Portuguese rule.
Commenting on Rhodesia's experience with television, Ivor Benson, who served as Director of the Government Information Department under Ian Smith, remarked that the South African government "had been wise to stand firm against a great deal of well-organised pressure and to insist on waiting until some means might be found of separating television from some of the evils which have attended it in other countries".
In the absence of television in South Africa, a radio version of the British television series The Avengers was produced by Sonovision for SABC's commercial network, Springbok Radio, in 1972. While it only ran for eighteen months, the radio series proved highly popular.
In 1968, the government's opposition to the introduction of television began to soften after Hertzog was removed as Minister for Posts and Telegraphs by Prime Minister John Vorster. In 1971, it appointed a "Commission of Inquiry into Matters Relating to Television", headed by Piet Meyer, chairman of the Afrikaner Broederbond, and later of the SABC. A majority of its members, of whom nine were Broederbond members, recommended that a television service be introduced, provided that "effective control" was exercised "to the advantage of our nation and country".
The Commission also argued that people in South Africa would eventually be able to receive foreign television broadcasts via satellite, thereby bypassing government censorship, and that this should be pre-empted through the introduction of a domestic service. In addition, it would be inconceivable that the Publications Control Board would be able to censor each video cassette that came into the country when they became available in mass quantities.
Introduction of television
In 1971, the SABC was finally allowed to introduce a television service. Initially, the proposal was for two television channels, one in English and Afrikaans, aimed at white audiences, and another, known as TV Bantu, aimed at black viewers. However, when television was finally introduced, there was only one channel with airtime divided evenly between English and Afrikaans, alternating between the two languages. Test transmissions in Johannesburg began on 5 May 1975, followed in July by ones in Cape Town and Durban. Nationwide services finally commenced on 5 January 1976.
In common with most of Western Europe, South Africa used the PAL system for colour television, being only the second terrestrial television service in sub-Saharan Africa to launch with a colour-only service, Zanzibar in Tanzania having introduced the first such service in 1973 (Tanzania itself did not establish a television service until the early 1990s, similarly concerned about the expense and perceived threat to cultural norms). The Government, advised by SABC technicians, took the view that colour television would have to be available so as to avoid a costly migration from black-and-white broadcasting technology.
On 1 January 1982, two services were introduced, TV2 broadcasting in Zulu and Xhosa and TV3 broadcasting in Sotho and Tswana, aimed at a black urban audience. In 1985, a new service called TV4 was introduced, carrying sports and entertainment programming, using the channel shared by TV2 and TV3, which ended transmissions at 9:30 pm. In 1992, TV2, TV3 and TV4 were combined into a new service called CCV (Contemporary Community Values). A third channel was introduced known as TSS, or Topsport Surplus, Topsport being the brand name for the SABC's sport coverage, but this was replaced by NNTV (National Network TV), an educational, non-commercial channel, in 1994.
The main channel, now called TV1, was divided evenly between English and Afrikaans, as before. It also became available in Walvis Bay, an enclave of South Africa in Namibia, which was itself then under South African administration, with a live feed of the channel broadcast via Intelsat being retransmitted on a local low-power repeater.
In 1986, the SABC's monopoly was challenged by the launch of a subscription-based service known as M-Net, backed by a consortium of newspaper publishers on 1 October. However, as part of its licensing restrictions, it could not broadcast news programmes, which were still the preserve of the SABC, although M-Net started broadcasting a current affairs programme called Carte Blanche in 1988. As the state-controlled broadcaster, the SABC was accused of bias towards the apartheid regime, giving only limited coverage to opposition politicians.
Many imported programmes were dubbed into Afrikaans, some of the first being the British detective series The Sweeney (known in Afrikaans as Blitspatrollie) and Van der Valk, as well as the puppet series Thunderbirds. However, in July 1986, in order to accommodate English speakers, the SABC began to simulcast the original soundtrack of American series on an FM radio service called Radio 2000. These included Miami Vice (known as Misdaad in Miami), The Six Million Dollar Man, (Steve Austin: Die Man van Staal) and Beverly Hills, 90210. This also applied to German and Dutch programmes dubbed in Afrikaans, such as the German detective series Derrick, and the Dutch soap opera Medisch Centrum West, known in Afrikaans as Hospitaal Wes Amsterdam.
Owing to South Africa's apartheid policies, the British Actors' Equity Association started a boycott of programme sales to South Africa, which, combined with a similar boycott by Australia, meant that South African TV was dominated by programming from the United States. As a result, it was only after the end of apartheid that the boycott was lifted and non-US programming became much more widely available.
However, some US production companies such as Lorimar, withdrew series like Knots Landing and Falcon Crest from South African circulation, while the transmission of the Academy Awards ceremony to South Africa was also banned.
The first locally produced TV programmes in South Africa were in English and Afrikaans. English-language programmes include the family drama series The Dingleys and The Villagers, as well as comedy series Biltong and Potroast, featuring South African and British comedians, and variety programme The Knicky Knacky Knoo Show. Other programmes were the children's series Bangalory Time, music series Pop Shop and sports programme Sportsview.
Afrikaans programmes included the comedy series Nommer Asseblief and Die Bosveldhotel, which were later made into feature films. Children's programmes included puppet shows, such as Haas Das se Nuuskas and Liewe Heksie. Other programmes in Afrikaans were the sports programme Sportfokus music programme Musik en Liriek.
The drama series Shaka Zulu, based on the true story of the Zulu warrior King Shaka, was shown around the world in the 1980s, but this was only possible because the SABC had licensed the series to a US distributor.
Since the end of apartheid, some South African-produced programmes have been shown internationally, such as SABC 3's scifi/drama series Charlie Jade, a co-production between the Imaginarium and Canada's CHUM, which has been broadcast in over 20 countries, including Japan, France, South Korea, and in the United States on the Sci-Fi Channel. M-Net's soap opera Egoli: Place of Gold, was shown in 43 African countries, and was even exported to Venezuela, where it was dubbed in Spanish.
Following the easing of media censorship under State President F. W. de Klerk, the SABC's news coverage moved towards being more objective, although many feared that once the African National Congress (ANC) came to power, the SABC would revert to type and serve the government of the day. However, the SABC now also carried CNN International's TV news bulletins, thereby giving South African viewers new sources of international news.
On 4 February 1996, two years after the ANC came to power, the SABC reorganised its three TV channels, so as to be more representative of different language groups. This resulted in the downgrading of Afrikaans' status by reducing its airtime from 50% to 15%, a move that alienated many Afrikaans speakers.
SABC TV programmes in Afrikaans and other languages are now subtitled in English, but programmes in English are not usually subtitled in other languages, the perception being that all South Africans understand English.
Previously, subtitling was confined to productions like operas and operettas. It was not used on TV1, on the assumption that most viewers understood both Afrikaans and English, nor on CCV, despite presenters using two or more different languages during a single programme.
The launch of PanAmSat's PAS-4 satellite saw the introduction of Ku band direct-broadcast satellite broadcasting services on 2 October 1995, soon after MultiChoice launched DStv. Two years later the SABC launched its ill-fated satellite channels, AstraPlus and AstraSport which were intended to catapult the corporation into the Pay TV market called AstraSat but a lack of financial backers and initial insistence on using analogue technology as opposed to digital technology resulted in failure.
The SABC's monopoly on free-to-air terrestrial television was broken with the introduction of privately owned channel e.tv in 1998. e.tv also provided the first local television news service outside of the SABC stable, although M-Net's parent company, MultiChoice, offers services such as CNN International, BBC World News and Sky News via direct-broadcast satellite as part of its paid offering.
The first 24-hour local business channel, CNBC Africa was launched in 2007 with eight hours of local programming and the remainder pulled from other CNBC affiliates. CNBC Africa competes with Summit, a business television station owned by media group Avusa, which broadcasts only during evening prime time. Both stations are available only on the MultiChoice direct-to-home platform, although the inclusion of CNBC Africa in the offering of new satellite players seems a near certainty.
In November 2007 regulators announced the award of four new broadcast licences after a process that saw 18 applications. The successful applicants were Walking on Water, a dedicated Christian service, On Digital Media, a broad-spectrum entertainment offering, e.sat, a satellite service from e.tv, and Telkom Media, a company 66% owned by telecommunications operator Telkom Group Ltd. The MultiChoice licence was renewed at the same time.
e.sat decided not to launch services but rather adopt a content provider business model. e.sat launched eNCA, a 24-hour news channel, in 2008 on the MultiChoice platform. Telkom Media, which was also granted an IPTV licence, decided in April 2009 not to pursue the launch of television services as its parent company Telkom did not believe adequate investment returns could be achieved, ad was liquidated. The remaining licensees were expected to be operational by late 2009 and all will operate direct-to-home services using standard small-aperture satellite dishes.
On Digital Media announced on 18 March 2010 that it would be launching TopTV in May 2010 as a second pay satellite TV competitor.
TopTV would offer a total of 55 channels with 25 channels in its basic offering.
Another model of public service television, called community television, was introduced to South Africa in the early 1990s. The impulse for this form of television in South Africa arose from a desire to overcome the divisions and imbalances in broadcasting resulting from apartheid. An important conference held in the Netherlands in 1991 saw a broad range of NGOs and Community Groups resolve that the full diversity of the country should be expressed in its broadcasting. Subsequently, community television was introduced to South Africa by legislation known as the Independent Broadcasting Authority Act of 1993. The act enabled three tiers of broadcasting, these being public, commercial, and community. While many community radio stations sprang up from that time, initially in Durban and Cape Town, community television was enabled only for temporary event licences of up to four weeks in duration. It was only after the national broadcasting regulator, the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA), promulgated its position paper on community television in 2004, that longer term licences of up to one year were enabled. This licensing regime was changed in 2010 when the duration for class licences was set at seven years.
Community television stations must, by law, a) serve a particular community; b) be run by a non-profit organisation; and c) involve members of the community in the selection and production of programming. Issues of frequency availability are complicated by the migration to digital broadcasting. This led ICASA declaring a moratorium on considering new community TV licence applications in March 2010.
The first community television station to get a one-year licence was Soweto TV in 2007. The station serves the southern Johannesburg region and principally Soweto, it is also available by satellite on the MultiChoice platform. The second community television licence was Cape Town TV, first licensed in 2008. The station serves the greater Cape Town metro. It broadcasts locally in Cape Town on two analogue frequencies from a transmitter on the Tygerberg site and is also carried nationally throughout South Africa and Lesotho on the DStv pay-TV platform.
In 2015 there are five licensed community TV broadcasters in South Africa. In addition to the above-mentioned services there is Bay TV in Port Elizabeth, Tshwane TV in Pretoria and 1KZN TV in Richards Bay. All of these channels have seven-year 'class' licenses. In 2014 these channels collectively reached an audience of around 12 million viewers and all are carried both terrestrially on local analogue frequencies as well as nationally on pay-TV platforms, principally DStv.
The first digital television implementation in South Africa was a satellite-based system launched by pay-TV operator MultiChoice in 1995. On 22 February 2007, the South African government announced that the country's public TV operators would be broadcasting in digital by 1 November 2008, followed by a three-year dual-illumination period which would end on 1 November 2011.
On 11 August 2008, the Department of Communications announced its Broadcasting Digital Migration Policy. The policy will govern the switchover from analogue to digital transmission, and states that the Department will provide funding to the national signal distributor Sentech to begin the migration process according to the published timetable. The timetable is phased as follows which is a delay of 4 years from the original one proposed:
- 8 August 2008 - MultiChoice launches South Africa's first HDTV channel (DStv channel 170)
- 2013 - begin digital transmissions (DTV)
- 2015 - ~100% digital coverage and switch-off of all remaining analogue transmitters
- 2019 - As of 2019 there has been no switch-off of analogue signal and the digital migration seems to have stagnated again.
On 14 January 2011, the South African Department of Communications chose the European standard DVB-T2 as the digital television standard in South Africa, following the trend in this direction of several African nations.
In May 2010, On Digital Media launched the TopTV satellite television service. It offers a number of South African and international television channels and broadcasts principally in English, but also in Hindi, Portuguese and Afrikaans.
There are no cable television networks in South Africa, because maintaining a cable network is expensive due to the need to cover larger and more sparsely populated areas. MMDS was previously used in South Africa for business and educational TV services, but since the introduction of Ku-band satellite transmissions in 1995, most MMDS transmitters have been dismantled.
Source: South African Audience Research Foundation (June 2013)
|Position||Channel||Group||Monthly reach (%)|
|1||SABC 1||South African Broadcasting Corporation||85%|
|2||SABC 2||South African Broadcasting Corporation||84%|
|3||e.tv||Hosken Consolidated Investments||81%|
|4||SABC 3||South African Broadcasting Corporation||76%|
|5||Soweto TV||community television||20%|
|7||Studio Universal||NBCUniversal International Networks||18%|
- South Africa Enters the Electronic Age: The Decision to Introduce Television, Edward C. Corrigan, Africa Today, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Spring, 1974), page 15
- Cros, Bernard. "Why South Africa's Television is only Twenty Years Old: Debating Civilisation, 1958-1969". Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- "South Africa: The Other Vast Wasteland". TIME. 20 November 1964. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- West, Richard (1978). The white tribes revisited. London: Private Eye Productions in association with Deutsch. ISBN 978-0233970455.
- Cosmopolitan, Volume 152, 1962, page 49
- Australia's Neighbors, 1967, page 8
- South Africa Defends TV Ban, New York Times, 10 November 1964
- The Sunday Times, 7 July 1969, quoted by Bernard Cros in "Why South Africa's Television is only Twenty Years Old: Debating Civilisation, 1958-1969". Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- Nixon, Rob (July 1999). "Apollo 11, Apartheid, and TV". The Atlantic. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- EBU Review: Programmes, Administration, Law, Volume 71, Administrative Office of the European Broadcasting Union, 1962, page 12
- Area Handbook for Zambia, Volume 550, Issue 75, Irving Kaplan, American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Area Studies U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969, page 255
- Viewing the Foreign and the Local in Zimbabwe: Film, Television, and the Shona Viewers, Katrina Daly Thompson University of Wisconsin--Madison, 2004, page 125
- Who's who of Southern Africa, Volume 54, Ken Donaldson (Pty.) Limited, 1967, page 393
- The Opinion Makers, Ivor Benson, Dolphin Press, 1967, page 135
- Avengers on the Radio
- The super-Afrikaners, Ivor Wilkins, Hans Strydom Jonathan Ball, 1980, page 273
- The Devil in the Black Box: Ethnic Nationalism, Cultural Imperialism, and the Outlawing of TV under Apartheid, School of Advanced Study, University of London, Rob Nixon, page 122
- Unfinished Business: South Africa, Apartheid, and Truth, Terry Bell, Dumisa Buhle Ntsebeza Verso, 2003 page 35
- Communication and Democratic Reform in South Africa, Robert B. Horwitz, Cambridge University Press, 2001
- Commission of Inquiry into Matters Relating to Television, Government Printer, South Africa, 1971, page 29
- "South Africa: Apartheid Television". TIME. 10 May 1971. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Westways, Volume 68, Automobile Club of Southern California., 1976, page 69
- TV's Last Frontier: South Africa, Journal of Communication, Annenberg School of Communications, Volume 26:1, Winter 1976, page 104
- TV in South Africa marks its 40th anniversary, channel24, 5 January 1976
- The World's Mews Media: A Comprehensive Reference Guide, Harry Drost, Longman, 1991, page 499
- Mass Media, Towards the Millennium: The South African Handbook of Mass Communication, Arrie De Beer, J.L. van Schaik, 1998, page 56
- South Africa's Yesterdays, Reader's Digest Association South Africa, 1981, page 144
- The SABC… informing a nation… inspiring the future Archived 15 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine, SABC, 2011
- The Press and Apartheid: Repression and Propaganda in South Africa, William A. Hachten, C.Anthony Giffard Springer, 1984, page 222
- S. Africa's black TV: on air to manipulate...or educate?, Christian Science Monitor, 24 December 1981
- Communication and Democratic Reform in South Africa, Robert B. Horwitz, Cambridge University Press, 2001, page 68
- South Africa: Official Yearbook of the Republic of South Africa, Department of Information, 1992, page 131
- The voice, the vision: a sixty year history of the South African Broadcasting Corporation, Malcolm Theunissen, Victor Nikitin, Melanie Pillay, Advent Graphics, 1996, page 127
- International TV & Video Guide, Richard Paterson, Tantivy Press, 1986, pages 181-183
- Media Studies: Institutions, theories, and issues, Pieter J. Fourie, Juta and Company Ltd, 2001, page 14
- "Carte Blanche: About". About - Carte Blanche. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "A cracked mirror for a fractured land". Daily Dispatch. 24 December 1999. Archived from the original on 7 March 2001. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- The S.A. film industry, African Studies Institute of the University of the Witwatersrand, 1979, page 106
- Boer War on the box, Richard West, The Spectator, 9 April 1977, page 7
- The voice, the vision: a sixty year history of the South African Broadcasting Corporation, Malcolm Theunissen, Victor Nikitin, Melanie Pillay, Advent Graphics, 1996, page 120
- GLENN FRANKEL (from The Washington Post) (25 May 1986). "Shows Allow Blacks, Whites to Share Cultural Experiences : South African Viewers Get a Mixed TV Message From U.S. Programs". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- The Six Million Dollar Man, TVSA - The South African TV Authority
- The critics' thumbs-up, Mail & Guardian, 9 February 1996
- Arrie De Beer (1998). Mass Media, Towards the Millennium. J.L. van Schaik. p. 223.
- Politiek correct en onkijkbaar, NRC Handelsblad, 5 May 1998
- Lelyveld, Joseph (22 September 1985). "South Africa: Dream and Reality". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- Ban on sale of TV shows to South Africa lifted: Anti-apartheid blockade by actors' union dropped following reform of broadcasting, but opposition to touring remains, The Independent, 10 November 1993
- Isolated States: A Comparative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 646
- Gordon Mulholland dies, aged 89, News24, 1 July 2010
- Behind the scenes with Barry Hilton, Boksburg Advertiser, 28 July 2015
- Obituary - Ann Graham (nee Greenwood) Archived 22 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Screen Africa, 27 Feb 2012
- South African Mining & Engineering Journal, Volume 91, Thomson Publications, 1980, page xxx
- South Africa Radio Denies Local Artists Are Snubbed, Billboard, 18 December 1982
- 6 legends: Great SA sportscasters, News24, 22 June 2014
- Movies, moguls, mavericks: South African cinema 1979-1991, Johan Blignaut, Martin Botha, Showdata, 1992, page 376
- Starring Mandela and Cosby: Media and the End(s) of Apartheid, Ron Krabill University of Chicago Press, 2010, page 60
- Liewe Heksie creator Verna Vels dies, Independent Online, 22 August 2014
- Financial Mail, S.A.A.N. Limited, 1986, page 112
- Voëlvry: The Movement that Rocked South Africa, Pat Hopkins, Zebra, 2006, page 56
- New media group takes to stage, Business Times, 9 November 1997
- Gloria Mudau: unassuming actress who lit up small screen, Times Live, 11 September 2011
- 'Shaka Zulu': Negative Metaphor For South African Blacks, Los Angeles Times, 21 November 1986
- "SCI FI ADDS 'CHARLIE JADE,' MORE IN COMING MONTHS". TheFutonCritic.com. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- "Satisfying local demand". Africa Film & TV 2000. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- CNN: making news in the global market, Don M. Flournoy, Robert K. Stewart, University of Luton Press, 1997, page 150
- Leaper, Norm (June–July 1996). "Ahh … the Pitfalls of International Communication". Communication World. San Francisco, CA: International Association of Business Communicators. 13 (6): 58–60. OCLC 107299423. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Louw, Eric; Mersham, Gary (2001). "Packing for Perth: The Growth of a Southern African Diaspora" (PDF). Asian and Pacific Migration Journal. 10 (2): 303–33. doi:10.1177/011719680101000204. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Language Policy and Nation-Building in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Jon Orman, Springer Science & Business Media, 2008, page 132
- Information Digest, The South Africa Foundation, 1989, page 80
- Surfing through the languages, The Economist, Volume 335, Issues 7917-7920, page 152
- African Film and Television Magazine, Volume 7, Z Productions, 1995, page 11
- Kobokoane, Thabo (3 August 1997). "Astrasat may be heading for the dump". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Telkom fails to find a new investor for Telkom Media and closes company, Balancing Act Africa, 2 April 2009
- Gedye, Lloyd (18 March 2010). "Top TV to hit screens in May". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Welcome to the official South African government online site! | South African Government" (PDF). www.info.gov.za. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Adrian Hadland, Mike Aldridge & Joshua Ogada, Re-visioning Television: Policy, Strategy and Models for the Sustainable Development of Community Television in South Africa (HSRC Press, 2006), p. 43.
- "Community Television Broadcasting Services" (PDF). Independent Communications Authority of South Africa. 30 November 2004. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "Regulations: Standard Terms and Conditions for Class Licences, 2010". ICASA. Issued by Government Gazette, Vol. 540, No. 33296. 14 June 2010. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Electronic Communications Act, No. 36 of 2005". Government Communication and Information System (GCIS). Issued by Government Gazette, Vol. 490, No. 28743. 18 April 2006. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Government Gazette Vol. 537, No. 33605, March 2010
- "South African Advertising Research Foundation (SAARF) Television Audience Measure Survey (TAMS)". October 2014.
- "Electronic Communications Act: Broadcasting Digital Migration Policy". Government Communication and Information System (GCIS). Issued by Government Gazette, Vol. 519, No. 31408. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2013.[permanent dead link]
- Mammburu, Livhuwani (14 January 2011). "Government confirms new digital TV standard". Business Day. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- SA adopts DVB-T2 standard for digital TV 14 January 2011
- DVB-T2 Digital TV standard and white neo-colonialism 17 January 2011
- "Digital TV standards battle ends: Logic prevails".
- Finally, SA is going digital | ITWeb
- "Top TV launches Saturday". Times LIVE. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Report of the Task Group on Broadcasting in South and Southern Africa, Task Group on Broadcasting in South and Southern Africa, Christo Viljoen, Government Printer, 1991, page 31
- The African Demand For Satellite Equipment
- "Cume Channel Reach". South African Audience Research Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- South African Broadcasting Corporation
- "Why South Africa's Television is only Twenty Years Old: Debating Civilisation, 1958-1969" by Bernard Cros
- TVSA - The South African TV Authority
- NEW TV STATION TO OPEN IN 1976 IN SOUTH AFRICA, AP Archive, 5 May 1975
- First official TV broadcast in South Africa in 1976
- Sentech's VIVID Free to Air satellite TV in South Africa. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011.
- Cape Town TV
- Strong Technologies l.l.c.
- My TV Africa